- The discipline that studies the emergence and development of systematic knowledge about nature. From the beginning of its institutionalisation, in the early 20th century, until the 1970s, history of science had mostly taken the form of a genealogy of abstract and disembodied ideas and discoveries that had led to contemporary science. From the 1970s onwards, the majority of approaches in the discipline regard science as a social and cultural phenomenon and focus not so much on ideas but on practices of the past related to the study of nature, legitimated or not by the present standards of science. They also focus on the material culture of science and on the reconstruction of collective identities of those included or excluded from scientific practice. In contrast to previous positivist and deterministic interpretations, such approaches broadly accept that the history of natural sciences is characterised by contigency.
- Daston 2001
- Morus 2001
- Katsiadakis Helen (AA)
- Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)
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