- Scientific discipline that was formed in the 1960s, replacing geology as the broad research field and major institutional context for studying the earth. The emergence of new ideas, techniques and instruments in scientific fields such as geophysics, seismology and oceanography in the first half of the 20th century, as well as the rise of planetary science in the 1960s, led to the formation of earth sciences as a wide and inclusive scientific discipline for all the sciences that study the earth, its atmosphere and hydrosphere.
- Laudan 2005a
- Oldroyd 2009
- Katsiadakis Helen (AA)
- Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)
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