- The development of techniques for the application of biological processes to the production of materials of use in medicine and industry, related to food, health, environment, energy etc. It includes traditional techniques, such as fermentation processes, antibiotic production, sewage treatment, but also novel and growing techniques, grounded in molecular and cell biology, for analyzing and manipulating the molecular building blocks of life. These techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, monoclonal antibodies, in vitro fertilization etc, have raised major ethical issues related to bioethics. The term "biotechnology" also designates products, such as pharmaceuticals or genetically-modified foods, created using these techniques. At times, it refers to an economic sector or area of research.
- Hilgartner 2001
- Martin, Ruse & Holmes 1996
- Smith, Datta, Smith, Campbell, Bentley & McKenzie 2000
- Katsiadakis Helen (AA)
- Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)
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