An office that first appears in ancient Athens. One of the nine archons, his original duty was to command the army, but after 487/6 B.C., when the archontes began to be appointed by lot, this function was handed over to the strategoi. The other duties of the polemarchos were mainly religious and judiciary. The religious duties included the responsibility for organising sacrifices, funeral games in honour of the dead of war, etc. Judiciary duties involved hearing cases of persons who were not Athenian citizens.