- A finite sequence of sentences whose last sentence is a conclusion of the sequence and follows necessarily from the preceding sentences (premises), which means that if the preceding sentences are true then the conclusion must be true. Therefore, valid deduction is "necessarily truth-preserving", in contrast to induction. Furthermore, deduction is "non-ampliative", i.e. the conclusion bears no new content, since its content is already present, at least implicitly, in the premises.
- Audi 2011
- Salmon, Earman, Glymour, Lennox, Machamer, McGuire, ... Schaffner 1998
- Πορτίδης, Ψύλλος & Αναπολιτάνος 2007
- Katsiadakis Helen (AA)
- Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)
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