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  • The science that studies the composition, structure and history of the earth. The term "geology", as the study of the earth, began to be used broadly in the late 18th century, whereas in the 19th century it was one of the most popular sciences and one of the first to be institutionalised with the emergence of specialised scientific societies, journals, textbooks etc. Its object was divided into two main branches; historical geology, which reconstructed earth history using stratigraphy and palaeontology, and physical geography, which investigated the earth's structure and causal processes and included mineralogy, petrology and structural geology. The term "geology" was used in a broader sense, encompassing all scientific disciplines studying the earth, until around the 1960s, when the wider discipline of "earth sciences" came to encompass all of them.


  • Allaby 2013
  • Laudan 2005b


  • Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)


  • Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)


  • 1610

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