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  • Science that studies life, and more specifically the structure (gross and microscopic), functioning, origin and evolution, classification, distribution and interrelationships of living organisms. The discipline of biology was formed in the 19th century, with theory of evolution as its main vehicle. In the 20th century, a significant number of subdisciplines were developed, now considered parts of a broader discipline that includes a wide variety of theories, practices, research traditions and interdisciplinary methods, also called "biological sciences" or "life sciences".


  • Bowler & Pickstone 2009
  • Mai, Young-Owl & Kersting 2005
  • Martin, Ruse & Holmes 1996
  • Pancaldi 2003a


  • Katsiadakis Helen (AA)


  • Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)


  • 1602

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