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  • The art of ancient and medieval times intending at liberating parts of the cosmos from temporal existence to achieve perfection. Material perfection was sought through practices which aimed at the transmutation of base metals into gold and the development of the elixir of life that was supposed to lead to longevity, immortality and, finally, redemption. Spiritual ennoblement could result from the receipt of inner revelation (gnosis or other mystical experience). Although alchemy had been defined as a form of magic in the late medieval times, it is considered to have contributed importantly to the shaping of scientific methods and practices and the development of chemistry, pharmacology and medicine in the early modern times.


  • Audi 2011
  • Bynum, Browne & Porter 1981
  • Jacob & Stewart 2004


  • Katsiadakis Helen (AA)


  • Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)


  • 2476

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