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2347Natural history  


  • Broad scientific area that studied the surface of Earth and its organisms (animals, plants, minerals), mainly through the collection, description and classification of observable phenomena, without necessarily requiring experimentation and laboratory apparatus for scientific deductions. Natural history has been the precursor to many of the modern disciplines such as anthropology, botany, geology, zoology, biology and ecology, also including aspects of what now fall under archaeology, geography and meteorology. In the second half of the 19th century, professionalisation of science and the establishment of individual scientific disciplines led natural history to a relative decline. It remained, however, a favourite topic of books, magazines, public lectures, exhibitions and museums in the context of the large-scale enterprise of the popularisation of science of the same period, whereas in the 20th century it turned mainly toward an amateurish engagement with nature.


  • Allen 1997
  • Browne 2003c
  • Mai, Young-Owl & Kersting 2005


  • Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)


  • Mergoupi-Savaidou Eirini (AA)


  • 2347

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